A dictionary is a listing of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon. It is a lexicographical reference that shows inter-relationships among the data. A broad distinction is made between general and specialized dictionaries. Specialized dictionaries include words in specialist fields, rather than a complete range of words in the language. Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are usually called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study. In theory, general dictionaries are supposed to be semasiological, mapping word to definition, while specialized dictionaries are supposed to be onomasiological, first identifying concepts and then establishing the terms used to designate them. In practice, the two approaches are used for both types. There are other types of dictionaries that do not fit neatly into the above distinction, for instance bilingual (translation) dictionaries, dictionaries of synonyms (thesauri), and rhyming dictionaries. The word dictionary (unqualified) is usually understood to refer to a general purpose monolingual dictionary. There is also a contrast between prescriptive or descriptive dictionaries; the former reflect what is seen as correct use of the language while the latter reflect recorded actual use. Stylistic indications (e.g. informal or vulgar) in many modern dictionaries are also considered by some to be less than objectively descriptive. Although the first recorded dictionaries date back to Sumerian times (these were bilingual dictionaries), the systematic study of dictionaries as objects of scientific interest themselves is a 20th-century enterprise, called lexicography, and largely initiated by Ladislav Zgusta. The birth of the new discipline was not without controversy, the practical dictionary-makers being sometimes accused by others of astonishing lack of method and critical-self reflection.
Un diccionario es una obra donde se consultan palabras o términos que se encuentran ordenados alfabéticamente. De las palabras o términos se proporciona su significado, definición, etimología, ortografía, fija su pronunciación, separación silábica y forma gramatical. La información que proporciona varía según el tipo de diccionario del que se trate. En muchos casos los diccionarios proporcionan el significado de las palabras, su etimología, su escritura, sinónimos y antónimos. La disciplina que se encarga, entre otras tareas, de elaborar diccionarios es la Lexicografía. Se encuentran por lo general en la forma de un libro impreso, pero también hay diccionarios electrónicos.